Jacques Caudebec and Margretta ProvoostJacques Caudebec was born 31 May 1664 to Guillaume Caudebec and Marie Lesueur. He was christened 1 June 1664 at Lintot, Pays de Caux, Normandy, France. He had one older brother, Jacques (who probably died young), along with two younger brothers, Guillaume (who probably died young) and Guillaume, and four younger sisters, Noemi (or Nahomi), Marie, Anne, and Jeanne.
He was a Huguenot (French Protestant) who, according to Gumaer, fled after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, along with a friend Pierre Guimar (known later as Peter Gumaer). Jacques was to meet his sisters, Nahomi and Marie, but they were late in arriving. Jacques gave up hope in meeting them and continued on. Jacques and Pierre sought refuge in England, then Maryland, and finally New York. Here, Jacques (now known by Dutch equivalent of his name, Jacob Cuddebeck) was supposed to have worked for one Benjamin Provoost.
Jacob married Margaretta Provoost 21 October 1695 in New York City, Kings, New York. Margaretta was the daughter of Benjamin Provoost and Elsje Alberts. Margaretta came from a large family with a half-brother, David (probably died young), seven brothers, David (probably died young), Willem, Albertus, Elias, Samuel, David (probably died young), and Davidt, and eight sisters, Magdalena, Esje (probably died young), Barber, Maria, Agnietje, Cornelia (probably died young), Elsje, and Cornelia.
According to Gumaer, Jacob, Pierre (then known as Peter), Thomas, Anthony, and Bernardus Swartwout (sons of Roeloff Swartwout and Eva Alberts Bradt-see the De Hooges family), Jan Tyse, and David Jamison and their families were the first settlers of what would be known as Mackhachkemeck and Minisink. On 14 October 1695, they had a license to purchase the land. Soon, the group would experience trouble when a group led by Jacob Rutsen attempted to settle the same land. An agreement was made for the two groups to purchase the land together. On 8 June 1696, the two groups bought land from a group of Native Americans and afterwards, obtained a patent. The land became. However, there continued to be trouble between the two groups with formal complaints made by Jacob's group in 1697 and 1699. Finally, according to Gumaer, "they sent Jacob Cuddeback to the Governor of the New York Colony to obtain a patent to cover as much land as they intended to occupy, which was granted the 14th of October, 1697, for 1,200 acres land to Jacob Cuddeback, Thomas Swartwout, Anthony Swartwout, Bernardus Swartwout, Jan Tyse, Peter Germar and David Jamison". The group settled on what would become known as Pioneer Knoll in Orange County, New York and Jacob built a mill at nearby Spring Brook and planted orchards.
Gumaer described Jacob as sensible, of "a speculative disposition", "a contemplative" and "penetrating mind" and a solid character, and "well calculated to overcome difficulties". Jacob was educated to some degree and well-read but had regrets that he could not provide the same opportunities for his children. Gumaer described his family as tall, very strong (Gumaer believed that this came from the Provoost side), intelligent, fair in complexion with curly black hair and blue eyes (generally). Jacob was more tender towards his children than his friend Peter and was "very tenacious of their characters". Gumaer tells of one incident relating to his children, "At a certain time two of his daughters told him that certain persons had made a scandalous report respecting them. He asked if it was true what they had said. They replied no, it was all lies. 'Well,' said he, 'maintain good characters and let them talk; they will get ashamed of their lies.'"
Jacob and Margaretta are buried in the Pioneer Knoll at Godeffroy, Orange, New York. Peter Gumaer estimated that Jacob was about 100 years old at his death.
Jacob and Margaretta's children:
Records of Baptisms of the Reformed Church at New York.
Baptism Date Parents Child Witnesses 1704 Jacob Koddebek Willem Elias & Barber Provoost 21 Jun Margrietie Provoost 1706 Jacob Goddebek Jacobus Gerret Wouterse, 7 Jul Margrietje Provoost Anthony de Mill, Magdalena Provoost
Source: Brassard, Theodore (comp.), Baptisms at the Reformed Dutch Church of New Amsterdam (1639-1730), Nottingham, NH: http://www.altlaw.com/edball/dutchbap.htm, 2000.
Records of the Reformed Dutch Church in New Amsterdam/New York Marriages
den 17 dicto. Jacob Codebeck, j.m., Van Normandyen, en Margareta Provoost, j.d., Van Kingstouwne, d' Eerste woonende in Esopus, en twede alheir. den 21 Octob.
(The 17th of the same month (Oct 1695). Jacob Codebeck, unmarried man, of Normandy, and Margareta Provoost, unmarried woman, of Kingston, the former living in Esopus, and the latter here. The 21st October.)
Source: Records of the Reformed Dutch Church in the City of New York: Marriages.
Records of Baptisms of the Reformed Church at Kingston, Ulster, NY.
Page Number Baptism Number Baptism Date Parents Child Witnesses 47 915 1696 Jacob Coddebeck Maria (No witnesses named). 2 Aug. Margriet Provoost 55 1081 1699 Jacob Coddebeck Benjamin Benjamin Provoost. 19 Feb. Margriet Provoost Marritje Teunissen. 63 1271 1701 Jacob Coddebeck Elsje Willem Provoost. 19 Oct. Grietje Provoost Elsje Provoost. 97 2021 1712 Jacobus Koddebek Magdalena Elias Van Bunschooten. 30 Jan Margrietjen Provoost Zara Jans. 105 2194 1714 Jacob Koddebek Dina Thomas Swartwoud. 19 Jan. Margrieta Provoost "Bp'd in Menissing," Elisabeth Gardenier. (Minisink) 160 3428 1726 Jacob Koddebek Naomy Philippus du Bois. 16 Jan. Margriet Provoost Bp'd "in Raysester," Ester Gomaar. (Rochester)
Kingston Marriage Register.
Page 532, Marriage # 356 20 Aug. 1716
JURIAAN WESTVAAL, widower of STYNTJEN VAN KUYKENDAAL, and MARYTJEN KODDEBEK, j. d., both parties born in Kingstown, and now resid. in Menissing (Minisink). Banns registered, 29 July. Married in Menissing.
Page 552, Marriage # 619 1727 (Date of marriage not given)
HARMEN VAN GARDEN, j. m., born in Raysester (Rochester), and ELSJEN KODDE-BEK, j. d., born in Menissing (Minisink), and both now resid. there. Banns registered, 11 June.
Page 563, Marriage #756 2 May 1733
WILLEM KODDEBEK, j. m., born in Menissing (Minisink), and JACOMYNTJEN ELTING, j. d., born under the jurisdiction of Kingstown, "and each resid. in the aforenamed place." Banns registered, 15 April.
Page 575, Marriage #875 31 May 1738
ABRAHAM LOUW, j. m., resid. in Rochester, and DINA KOETTEBEK, j. d., resid, in Menissing (Minisink). Banns published, without objection, in Menissing, and married in Menissing.
Page 612, Marriage #1304 11 May 1757
LODEWYK HOORNBEEK, widower, and NAOMY CODEBEEK, j. d., both resid in Rochester. Married on the presentation of a license.
Source: Hoes, Roswell Randall (comp.), Baptismal and Marriage Registers of the Old Dutch Church of Kingston, Ulster County, New York, Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1997 (originally published by De Vinne Press (New York), 1891).
Records of Baptisms of the Reformed Church at Machackemeck (Deerpark).
Page Number Baptism Date Parents Child Witnesses 97 1716 Jacobus Koddebeck Abraham Juriaen Westfael, Aug. 19. Margriet Provoost Maritje Koddebeek
Marriage Record-1737-97 (Machackemeck)
1751-May 12. Abram Codebek, young man, born at Pienpeck and dwelling there, to Hester Swartwout, young woman, born at Sindiachquan and dwelling there, married the 29th of May
Church Members-1745-67. (Machackemeck)
1745-Sept. 19. In the presence of Hendrick Kortrecht and Dirk Westbroeck, reverend elders of Menissinck, upon satisfactory confession of faith and life, as members of the abovementioned church were received:
1746-Sept. 18. These in presence of Jacob Westfael, the respected elder of Machackemech, upon sufficent confession of faith and life, were received as members of our Reformed Low Dutch Church:
1755-March 29. Also upon confession in presence of Thomas Decker respected elder of Machhackemech, is received Hester Swartwout wife of Abram Kodebek.
Source: Minisink Valley Reformed Dutch Church Records, 1716-1830, facsimile reprint by Heritage Books, Bowie, MD, 1992.
Deed from the Indians
Know all men by these present that Achparreny, Orreguan, Harmon Hekan, Tadepaa, Sansanan, Wackheeck, Toorakawa, Paghetenson, Koerdereson. Tindemopigton, Namesjarout, Maberotgaroposon, Tonnespaam, Mossingsinck, Capiskeham Indians sendeth greetings. Whereas we the said Achparreny, Orreguan, Harmon Heckan, Tadepaa, etc., for and in consideration of fifty pounds current money, five guns five blancoats five coats of strouds five coats of Duffels five laps five shirts five pistols five knives five axis five hats five pr of stockings, five drawin knives five swords fifty pounds of powder two ancors Rum, forty barrels of lead fifty needles fifty ailds fifty fishin hooks eight Barrolls strong beere and six fine coats to them in hand payd before the ensealing and delivery of these presents by Jacob Rutse, Gerrit Aartss, Jacob Aartss, Dan Honan, Coenraet Elmendorp, Thomas Swartwout Dick vanderburgh Anthony Swartwout Jacob Coddeback Johannis Westphalen, Claes Westphalen, Simon Westphalen the widow of Thomas Quick Barnardus Swartwout Peter Gumair Elyas Und Cornelis Switts Hendrick Janson, Hendrick Decker Cornelius Clase, Cornellus De Duyster have bargained sold assigned and sett over unto said Jacob Rutse Gerrit Aartss, Jacob Aartss and Daniel Honan, Thomas Swartwout and the rest of the partners that have obtained a grant from his Excell. and council for Menissing Waggackemech. All that certain tract or parcell of land situate lying and being in the bounds of Menissing & Waggackemeck beginning at the west bound of the land called Naponach to a small runn of water called by the indian name Assawagkemeek and soe alongst said run of water and the land of Hansjoor the indian.
To have and to hold the said tract of land unto the said Jacob Rutse Gerrit Aartss Dan Honan, Thomas Swartwout and the rest of the partners as above sd Theire heirs and assigns for ever The said Ackparreny Orreguan, Hannon Hekan, Tadipaa &c doth the further covenant promise and engage to warrand and defend the said Jacob Rutse, Gerrit Aartss, Jacob Aartss, Daniel Honan, Thomas Swartout, and the rest of the partners for the said land against all manner of Indyans that shall claim the same
In testimony whereof we have hereunto sett our hands
In Kingstowne this 8th day of June 1696
Signed in the presence of
Ackparreny X his mark
Orreguan X his mark
Harmon Hekan X his mark
Tadepaa X his mark
Sansanan X his mark
Wackheeck X his mark
Toorakawa X his mark
Paghetenson X his mark
Koerdereson X his mark
Tindemopigton X his mark
Namesjarout X his mark
Mabertogaroposon X his mark
Tonnespaam X his mark
Mossingsinck X his mark
Capiskeham X his mark
Roeloft Swartwout / Tonnespaam X his mark
W.D. Meyer / Paghetesson X his mark
In the presence of Dirck Schopmoos
Justice of the peace
A true copy &c J. Wottingham clerk
In Office of Secretary of State at Albany. Vol. 2
Petition of Jacob Codeber Thomas Swart & others praying a patent for a tract of land in Ulster County being a part of a tract called Waghaghkemeck.
To Coll Benjamin Fletcher, General & Governor of New York &c.
Thomas Gumbl Jacob Coddeber, Thomas, Anthony & Barnardus Swartwout, James Tys David Jamison
That there is a......land called Waghaghkomock in Elster......the sixth first petitioners had a lyine on......hundred acres for the improvement but......uttssen & Company who has a poss......the Minissink fort so it is that......Waghkomeck is purchased of the indians......the first grant
Therefore......have a patent for the same to......ever as to oath (other?) un equal favor.......so 1200 acres in the......most......under a mo......Ecell and......pray......thony Swartwout...Paire Gumare......out......David Jamisson......eck......Thomas Swartwout
(The "......" indicate that it is impossible to read the lines or make out the words on the original paper owing to its extreme age.)
In Office of Secretary of State at Albany. Vol. 2
Page 235, May 14th, 1697:
Petition of Thomas Swartod & others to have Jacob Rutson & Company restrained from unlawfully obstructing them in perfecting their title to 1200 acros of land, lying at a certain place called by the indian Waghgaghemek.
Col. Benjamin Fletcher
Captain in Cheiffe of ye
Province of New York and
Provinces depending theron
Vice Admiral of ye same
May 14th 1697
The humble petition of
Thomas Swartwod Peter Gumard
Anthony Swartwod Bernard Swartod
Eliashia &c James Codebecke
I humbly sheweth
That your Excellenceys petitioners have ye favor of Liene or grant to purchase to ye quantity of 1200 acres of in Elster County at a certain place called by ye indians Waghgagkemeck, which your Excellys petrs have discovered at their great charges and travaille, that pursuant thereunto yr petrs have made an agreement with ye native proprietors for ye said land and have got ye boundry laid out by ye indians by sundry mark'd trees and have paid some part of ye consideration; but have not obtained a deed from ye indians who have agreed to perform and execute the same.
That some months afterwards Jacob Rutsen and company did obtain your excellencey's favor of a liene or grant for purchasing of......akers of land at ye Minissing distant form ye petitioners land
That the said Jacob Rutsen and company have surreptitiously......persuaded them not to make the deed......
......your Excellys petrs humbly pray your excellency will give some directions to Jacob Rutsen and company not to place unlawful obstructions to the just proceedings of your Excellys petitioners, there being vacant land enough to be purchased in the ye said county, if not at the place which they did assigne in their petition to your excellency and for which ye have ye grant.
And your Excellency's petitioners in duty bound shall ever pray &c.J. Codebec
At Albany. Vol. 2. Page 275, Oct. 18th, 1699:
Petition of Barnardus Swartwout on behalf of himself & others, the owners of sundry lands at Waghahkemek, near Menissincks complaining ill-treatment by indians who were instigated to the same by Jacob Rutsen & company and praying that they may be protected in the peaceable enjoyment of their possessions.
To the the Honble John Nasan Esq Leu Govonor & commander in chief of provice of New York &c and the Honble council of the land
The humble petition of Barnardus Swartwout in behalf of himself and copartners in a new Settlement at Waghahkowock now the Minissinks.
That on the 14 th day of October 1695 the petitioners had lycense to purchase 1200 acres of vacant land at a place called Waghaghkamock, which being understood by Col Rutsen and others who were desirous of the same lands which the petitioners had by (charge?) and pains discovered found a petition to the Governor and Council afterwards, to wit: The 9th of January 1695-6 for a lysence to purchase 400 acres at great little Minissinks Under color of which lysense being upwards of 20 in number, by large gifts to the indians and and other indirect (works?) (debauches?) them to (bad?) faith to the petitioners, to sell the same lands to them, of which complaint was made to the Govornor & Council, & an order thereupon granted that (it approving the petitioners lysense was prior to the date of that of Rutsen & Compa. and the name of the place certain, and (still) it is of ill consequence to have indirect dealings with the indians.
That Rutsen and company do desist from any pretensions to purchase theland mentioned in the lysense of the petitions upon penalty of answering the same. Upon which order afterwards to wit the 28th day May 1696 Rutsen & company prays the Governor & council not to have ill thoughts of them, and allege that the land that the petitioners lay claim to by lysense is not called Waghgaghemeck which being ready and considered in council, an order issued upon petitioners that Swartwout and company pursuant to their (wish?) should purchase 1200 acres at Waggaghkemmack and afterwards the other company their 4000 acres. Notwithstanding all which though Rutsen & company ventured still privly to (soist?) with the indians and obstruct the lawful purchase until the middle of the year 1697, when the petitioners to obtain their rights (forms?) of them verbally (consutod?) to make a joint purchase with the other company which being done they thereupon on the 14th of Oct. 1697 obtained his (mahos?) patent for the 1200 acres and betook themselves to the improvement thereof (and?) (company?) to all right and the former orders without any patent or first giving (way?) to the petitioners peaceably to enjoy their 1200 acres. Many of the other company (purpose?) appointed by and under them satt down upon the s'd land forcibly that it being far from the other Christian settlement & mountain (whether?) in the county of Elster or Orange the forests could not be removed by the indians that now Shely-irr-tin through months of Aug. and Sept. left and (devvey?) other times. The indians chiefly Asawanta Pindamnius, Karhkolano Sansa and Nashingloan with many others though pretended owners of the land to the petitioners unknown being stirred up freely by the s'd other company have fallen upon the s'd Barnardus Swartwout and his brother another partner and have beaten bruised and badly kicked st that of their lives they did really despair, and robbed plundered and carried away their goods haply and have destroyed their cattel, have (put firn?) often into their houses to burn them in which violent practices those other company, their wives came to look on and render the indians & (hindor?) from killing of them. But the men kept out of the wy which is of very pernicious (......) and may end in an indian warr if life should be taken on any other part which your petitioners would strenuously avoid, and therefore humbly pray that said indians may sent for and made to disclose who they are that put them upon this violence (sound?) prudent (vard?) be taken to prevent future mischief that such punishment may be enforced to their good
\that the guiet & peaceable possession of their estates to the end that justice & right may take place according to your honorable great wisdom and prudence. This ye petrs as in duty shall pray &c.
Mortgage-Jacob Codebec to Peter Guymard
To all Christian people to whom this present writing shall or may come.
Jacob Codebec of Wackackhameck in the county of ulster and province of New York sendeth greeting.
Now know ye that the said Jacob Codebec, for divers good causes and considerations him thereunto moving but more and especially for and in consideration of the sum of one hundred and seventy pounds currant money of the province of New York to him in hand paid before the ensealing and delivery of these presents by Peter Guymard of the same place. The receipt whereof he the said Jacob Codebec doth hereby acknowledge and thereof and therefrom and of and from every part & parcell therof doe acquit exhonerate release and forever discharge the said Peter Guymard his heirs administrators and executors by these presents.
It Ave given granted bargained and sold released ratified and confirmed, and by these presents doe fully freely clearly and absolutely give grant bargain & sell release ratify and confirm unto the said Peter Guymard, his heirs & assignes for ever all that certain tract or parcell of land lying and being in Wachachkameck. Being the one just seventh part of the 1200 acres of land granted by patent to David Jamison Thos Swartwout, John Mattison and company by Gouverour Benjamin Fletcher as by said patent may more fully and at large appear.
So have and to hold the said seventh part of the said 1200 acres of land with all and singular the priviledges the reditaments and appurtanences thereunto belonging or in any way appertaining unto the said Peter Guymard his heirs and assigns and to the only proper use benefit and behoof of him the said Peter Guymard his heirs and assignes forever.
Provided always and upon this condition and it is the true intent and meaning of these presents that if the above named Jacob Codebec his heirs executors and administrators or assignes the just and full sum of 170 pounds current money aforesaid on or before the 14th day of February which will be in the year of our lord 1729 with the yearly interest of 8 p cent per anum.
Then and in such case this present deed of bargains and saleto be utterly void and of none effect Otherwise to stand and abide in full force power and virtue. In testimony whereof I have hereunto put my hand and seal this 14th day of February in the 12th year of his magesties Reigne
Annaq Dom 1725/6 Sealed and delivered
In the presence of us J. Codebec SS
Jno Crooke Jun
Barnardus X A C Swartwout
Ulster Co. This is to certify that on the 16 day of Feb. in the 12th year of his magesties Reigne Annoq Dom 1725/6 appeared before me Abraham Gaasbeek Chambers Esq one of the judges of the inferior court of common pleas for said county.
Jno Crooke June one of the witnesses to this deed and being sworn on the Holy Evangelist declares that he saw the within named Jacob Codebec execute the same as his voluntary act and deed, and that he saw Joseph Wheeler & Barnardus Swartwout sign the same as witnesses and that he signed the same as a witness; and having carefully examined the same & finds no erarures nor interlineations in the same and allows the same to be entered on siad county Record.
vera A Gaasbeek Chambers
Gil Livingston Clk.
From County Clerk's office Kingston.
Deed of Jacob C. to his Sons
To all Christian People to whom this present writing shall or may come Jacob Codebec of Wagachkameck in the county of Ulster and the Province of New York in America Sendeth Greeting Now ye know that the said Jacob Codebec for divers good causes and considerations him thereunto moving, but more & especially for and in consideration of the sum of 170 pounds currant money of the province of New York to him in hand paid or secured to be paid by his three eldest children. That is to say the three eldest sons by name Benjamin William and Jacobus, the receipt whereof he the said Jacob Codebec doth hereby acknowledge and thereof and therefrom and of and from every part & parcell thereof doth acquit exonerate release and forever discharge the said Benjamin William and Jacobus Codebec their heirs executors and administrators and every of them firmly by these presents have given granted bargained sold released ratified confirmed and by these presents doe fully freely clearly and absolutely give grant bargaine & sell release ratify & confirm unto the said Benjamin William & Jacobus Codebec their heirs and assignes for ever all that certain tract or parcell of land situate being and lying in the county of ulster at Wackachkemeck being one just seventh part of 1200 acres of land.
Said Jacob Codebec stands entitled (?) and possessor? by virtue of a patent from Governor Benjamin Fletcher. Relation thereunto had may more fully & at large appear.
So have and to hold said just seventh part of 1200 acres of land as is devided & undivided with all and singular the appurtenances thereunto belonging or in any way appurtaining unto them the said Benjamin William and Jacob Codebec their heirs and assignes and to the only proper use benefit and behoof of them the said Benjamin William & Jacob Codebec their heirs executors and administrators and assignes that whereas the said Jacob Codebec has mortgaged the above land unto Peter Guymard the 14th inst for the consideration of the above said. Now if the above said Benjamin Codebec William Codebec and Jacob Codebec do pay and release said mortgage with interest and what said land shall be balanced appraised by three men (indifferently chosen) to be worth more than said money Said Benjamin William & Jacob Codebec shall pay the releasing said mortgage and interest that money or overplush shall be devided amongst all my natural children by name Benjamin William Jacobus Marytie Elsie Helena Abraham En Naomie In equal shares.
The said Benjamin William and Jacob paying the yearly quit due upon the said lands then this deed of bargaine and saile to be in full power and virtue.
In testimony whereof the said Jacob Codebec has hereunto set his hand and affisced his seale this 15 day of February in the 12 year of his majesties Reigne Annoq Dom 1725/6
The word (the 14th inst) was interlined between the 26th and 27th lines before the execution of the presents
J Codebec SS
Sealed and delivered in the presence of us
Jno Crooke June
Jacobus Swartwout, Jr.
Source: Cuddeback, William Louis, Caudebec in America, New York: Tobias A. Wright, 1919, pgs. 30-38.
The following was written by Peter E. Gumaer, the grandson of Jacques' friend Peter Gumaer (Pierre Guimar). Considering that Jacques reportedly lived 100 years (to about 1766) and Peter wrote that he could remember "from about the year 1774" (Page 96), this information makes an intriguing source:
Jacob Cuddeback built a small mill on a spring brook near his residence. How it answered the purpose of grinding is not known. One of the stones in my possession (now broken) was about two feet in diameter and about two inches thick. It was found in a cellar of an old house which stood near Cuddeback's first residence.
In the year 1690, as near as can be determined, Jacob Cuddeback, Thomas Swartwout, Anthony Swartwout, Bernardus Swartwout, Peter Gumaer, John Tyse and David Jamison , settled in the present town of Deerpark, in the County of Orange and State of New York, on and near a handsome knoll or hill contiguous to a spring brook and a spring of living water, in the central part of the Peenpack flats . This spring still remains near its first location, but not as flush as formerly. The upper surface of this hill is flat, and its elevation about 20 feet higher than the low- land surrounding it. The Indian name, "Peenpack," was, by certain of the ancient people, said to be significant of this hill and spring.
Peter Gumaer located himself at the southwest end of the hill, John Tyse between that and the spring brook, Bernardus Swartwout on the easterly brow of the hill, a few rods westerly of the spring, where the cellar now remains; Thomas Swartwout on the central part of the hill, opposite the spring, where the cavity of his cellar remains; Jacob Cuddeback a few rods northeast of the northeast end of the hill, on the low ground, where has been a cavity of his cellar, flow leveled; Anthony Swartwout, where the house formerly of Cornelius Van Inwegen stood, a few rods northeast of Cuddeback's place of residence, and David Jamison, somewhere near this last location. Here these few families had advantageously located themselves for material assistance to repel Indian attacks, in case they should happen, and also for all of them to get water out of the spring for their drink in hot weather. The most distant of those residences was not over thirty rods from it.
Eager, in making researches for a history of Orange County, found this settlement to he the earliest of any in it.  The liberty of settling here was probably obtained from the Indians by purchase; for it appears that these settlers were and remained at peace with them and on friendly terms until the commencement of the French war...
When this place was first settled, it was about 25 or 30 miles distant from the nearest settlement of white people, which latter was on the road from here to Kingston. Two of the first pioneers, Cuddeback and Gumaer, were from France and of families who were in comfortable circumstances of life, which appears evident from what has been said by them in relation thereto, and from the fact that they had been brought up without doing any manual labor. It was said that their hands were so soft and tender when they first came into America that they blistered and bled when they first labored for a living in this country. The family of Cuddeback were in a trading business, in which Cuddeback had served as clerk. It was said the family of Gumaer were rich and in possession of large bills of exchange, for which they could not get money before he had to flee to escape persecution or death. From a certificate of his, in the French language, in relation to his church membership and character, dated the 20th of April, 1686, it appears that he then was in France and about 20 years of age. In 1685, the edict of Nantes was revoked by Louis XIV, King of France, whereby the Huguenots became unprotected by the laws of that country and exposed to the vengeance of the Catholics, who were the most numerous and powerful class of people in that country, and, after they became unrestrained, exercised their power to torture and murder the former, and to plunder and destroy their property, which caused a flight of thousands of them from France into other countries, in which the two individuals mentioned made their escape from it.
The name Cuddeback, as now written and Codeback as written in the patent, must both differ from the original orthography. Caddeback has said that his name was that of a certain city in France. On examining an ancient gazetteer I find the orthography of one city in that country to be "Caudebec," which, in the French tongue, has the same oral sound as that of Codeback in the English tongue.
The Rev. Henry Morris, of Cuddebackville, has furnished me with some historical accounts from Malte Brun's Universal Geography, Vol. 6, being the following notice of Caudebec:
"Caudebec was formerly the capitol of Caux, a small country in which agriculture has attained to a high degree of perfection, where every house, surrounded by trees of different sorts, contributes to adorn the different sites; indeed, the country, watered by the Seine from Havre to Rouen, may vie with the vaunted banks of the Seine. Caudebec was a flourishing town before the revocation of the edict of Nantes; it was almost ruined in consequence of that impolitic measure, and, although it possesses a convenient harbor, the population does not exceed three thousand souls. It is situated in the district of Yvetot, a small town of which the lords before the reign of Louis XI were styled kings by their vassals."
Morris further states that "Caudebec is situated in the department of the Lower Seine, in which are the following towns: Lillebonne, Rouen, Elbeuf, Gournay and Aumale," and judges that it lies on the river Seine between Paris and the English Channel, and belongs to that part of France that anciently was called Normandy.
I feel very thankful for this information. It reminds me of certain occurrences which attended Cuddeback and Gumaer at the time of their flight from France, and all in connection gives me reason to think that both of them resided in the capital mentioned.
Caudebec said that the vessel in which he escaped from his country had many wheat bread passengers on it, who, after a few days' sailing, began to complain of their fare on the vessel, and that they could not live on the diet furnished, when the same consisted of plenty of bread, meat, beans, and other vegetables, and such eatables as were generally had on ships, but were inferior to such as they had been habituated to. As for himself, he said be thought he could do well enough on such victuals, but, he said, before they arrived at their place of destination, provisions became scarce and they began to have good reason to complain. From which, it appears, that their voyage must have been retarded by contrary winds, or a circuitous route, to avoid being taken by their enemies. I have also understood that Gumaer lived in a city, and, when his enemies sought for him, he was reading in a garden, where he was informed of his enemies searching for him and he fled to the top of one of the houses, where lie hid. Now, as it appears that this city was a flourishing place before it became reduced by the persecutions mentioned and suffered much in consequence of the same, and, as one of those two individuals bore the name of the town, it appears very probable that the passengers in the vessel mentioned were all from this capital.
I have been informed that Caudebec sometimes related the manner in which the Protestants, or Huguenots, were tortured and murdered, one of which I still remember, but consider it too shocking to our feelings to embrace it in this work, being worse, in my view, than the vile Nero's project of employing dogs to kill Christians...
A hasty flight of these two individuals prevented them from being furnished with sufficient funds for a livelihood, in consequence of which it was concluded that two sisters of Cuddeback, who were to leave France afterwards and meet them at their place of destination (which, the writer has understood, was to be England, but it may have been in Holland), were to bring money for setting up a business of trade. It is probable that there was an intended marriage of Gumaer with one of those sisters. They did not arrive at the appointed time, and, after all hope of their coming was given up, these two young men embarked for America and landed in the State of Maryland, which passage exhausted all their money, and here they began to experience the want of it. After a short stay, they came into the State of New York, where both entered into a state of matrimony, Cuddeback with a daughter of Benjamin Provost, who was in a trading business either in. the city of New York or somewhere in the vicinity of the Hudson river, whereby he became related to some Swartwout families, which probably led to an association of Cuddeback, the three Swartwouts and other companions to move into this part of the country...
Cuddeback, Gumaer and one of the Swartwouts were the only three of the first settlers who remained in the present town of Deerpark, and they became the owners of the land granted by the patent; and having become too weak to defend their possessions against Jersey claimants, they let Harmanus Van Inwegen have some of their lands to come and reside here and help defend their possessions. He was a bold, strong and resolute man, on whom much reliance was placed. He was originally from Holland, and in the early part of his life had been a seafaring man. At a certain time he was at the house of Cuddeback, and on hearing him read that part of history which relates to Hindoo women suffering themselves to be burned, after the death of their husbands, in case of being the survivors, said that his own eyes had seen what he (Cuddeback) was reading, and mentioned the place of the occurrence and manner in which it was transacted...
After the seven first settlers had resided here a few years, they sent Jacob Cuddeback to the Governor of the New York Colony to obtain a patent to cover as much land as they intended to occupy, which was granted the 14th of October, 1697, for 1,200 arces land to Jacob Cuddeback, Thomas Swartwout, Anthony ;Swartwout, Bernardus Swartwout, Jan Tyse, Peter Germar and David Jamison, who, as near as can be determined, continued to be the only settlers of white people in this part of the country for a term of more than 20 years. The strongest evidence of this is that the children of the first settlers between this place and the Delaware river were contemporary with the grandchildren of the first settlers, and that some of the children of the first pioneers were among the first settlers of both the lands between this place and the Delaware river, and a few miles down the same in the north part of New Jersey.
One daughter of Jacob Cuddeback, one of Van Inwegen, one of Swartwout, and a sister of the second Peter Gumaer's wife, were among the first settlers between this place and the Delaware; and one son and four daughters of Cuddeback were among the first in the north of New Jersey...
Family of Jacob Cuddeback and wife Margaret Provost-(Jacob Cuddeback lived to be about 100 years old.)
First son, Benjamin Cuddeback, never married. He, in the first instance, lived with his brother William, and afterwards with his nephew, Benjamin Cuddeback. (Lived to be about 80 years old.)
Second son, William Cuddeback, married Jemima Elting, daughter of - Elting of the Old Paltz. He became owner of his father's farm, and resided on the premises afterwards occupied by his son, Captain Cuddeback. (Lived to be about 74 years old.)
Third son, James Cuddeback, married Neelje Decker, daughter of Christopher Decker, of Shipikunk, in the north part of New Jersey, where Cuddeback became a resident. (Died about 30 years of age.)
Fourth son, Abraham Cuddeback, married Esther Swartwout, daughter of Major James Swartwout, of Peenpack. They resided near the present dwelling house of Peter L. Gumaer until they became old and were removed by their sons to Skaneateles Lake, in this State, where two of his Sons lived. He owned a farm where he first resided. (Abraham Cuddeback died at Skaneateles Aug. 18th, 1796, aged 83 years. His wife died April 11th, 1798, aged 65.)
One daughter, Dinah Cuddeback, married Abraham Louw, a son of Tys Louw, of Rochester, in Ulster county. He was a blacksmith and settled in Shipikunk, in the north part of New Jersey, and became owner of a good farm, of which Wilhemus Fredenburgh, Peter and Joseph Van Noy and James and Evart Van Auken afterwards became owners. (Dinah lived to be about 74 years old.)
Another daughter, Eleanor Cuddeback, married Evart Hornbeck, son of Hornbeck, of Rochester, in Ulster county. They first settled on the farm now in possession of Joseph Cuddeback in this town; and afterwards moved into the neighborhood of Shipikunk, in New Jersey, and became residents on or near the premises lately occupied by his grandson, Capt. Benjamin Hornbeck, where they became owners of a good farm. He was a blacksmith, which was a good trade in his time. (Eleanor lived to be about 70 years.)
Another daughter, Else Cuddeback, married Harmanus Van Gorden, son of -. He was or became owner of the farm, which, after his death, was owned by his two sons, Daniel and Benjamin Van Gorden, in the neighborhood of Shipikunk...(She lived to be about 80.)
Another daughter, Maria Cuddeback, married Geo. Westfall, son of - Westfall, of the neighborhood of Minnissing, in New Jersey. This was the ancient Indian name of the neighborhood in which the ancient Minisink church was located. Her husband died and she afterwards married - Cole. 
Youngest daughter, Naomi Cuddeback, married Lodiwyke Hornbeck, a widower, and son of Judge Jacob Hornbeck, of Rochester, in Ulster county, where they continued to reside till after the decease of her husband, whom she survived, and underwent different scenes in life afterwards. She had the reputation of a sensible woman. They had one son named Henry and one daughter Maria. The former had children, but the latter had none. The writer knows nothing in relation to the children of Henry.
(There appears to have been another son of Jacob Cuddeback and Margaret Provost named Jacob, who was baptized in the Dutch church in New York, July 7th, 1706. His name is mentioned likewise in an old deed of his father. He married Jannetye Westbrook.)
It was said of Jacob Cuddeback, by his grandson, Capt. Cuddeback, that he lived to the age of 100 years and retained his faculties good to the end of his life. In 1686, when Peter Gumaer was 20 years old, and he and Cuddeback had to leave France, the latter cannot have been less than 20 or 25 years of age. It appears he lived until after the inhabitants of this neighborhood had to buy some land out of Expense lot number two, in the Minisink patent, for a supply of fuel, rail timber, &c., which must have been about the year 1766. From all of which it appears that the age of Cuddeback cannot have been less than 100 years, and that the answer he made to his son William, heretofore mentioned, near the end of his life, shows that his intellect was yet good at that time.
Ages of First Generation
Family of Jacob Cuddeback
Benjamin about 80
His William " 74
sons James " 30
Abraham " 80
His wife, Esther Swartwont " 80
Maria " 100
Dinah " 74
Daughters Eleanor " 70
Else " 70
Naomi " 80
It was said that the ancient Cuddebacks were also fair complexioned...
The first two generations of the four ancient families had the small-pox naturally, without vaccination or dieting and without the attendance of a physician, and generally had it light...The Cuddebacks and Gumaers were not pock-marked, and the Swartwouts very trifling... Rheumatism sometimes afflicted the members of the second Gumaer family, but still were able to perform much labor and were strong, though not equal in strength to the Swartwout or Cuddeback families. All were men of six feet stature, excepting two of the Gumaer and one of the Van Inwegen family, and averaging, near 200 lbs. weight.
Being the children of the first pioneers, who settled in Peenpack at a time when there was no other production in this part of the country for them to live on than the meat they could obtain of the wild animals, fowls and fishes before they raised grain or other productions for their diet, and we have reason to infer that after raising grain they only pounded it fine to answer for meat soups and such bread or cakes as they could make of it, to eat with those meats, and that these were their chief or only eatables for some years before they became enabled to have any other diet. They may, in the first instance, have obtained some meal from Rochester or vicinity, but after raising enough for their use it is probable they would rather use it pounded than to take it to the nearest mill, at that time, to get it ground; in which latter case the bran remained in the meal and - as they could obtain good pounding stones and blocks from the Indians to pound their grain, and as the bran in grinding as well as pounding would remain in the meal, and as the nearest mill must have been about 25 or 30 miles from their neighborhood, we have reason to believe that they pounded their grain for soups and bread before mills were erected in this town ; and that the greatest difference between the diet of those families and that of the Indians, was that the former ate a greater proportion of vegetable productions than the latter. The men of this generation of descendants were generally stronger than those who succeeded them, from, which it appears their eatables were healthful and that their drink, which was the best of spring water, also promoted health, and that all other circumstances which attended them were also of a healthful character, to wit: a pure air of the atmosphere, not impregnated with the exhalations from bad, stagnant waters ; brooks and small streams of clear water running down the mountains into the Neversink, creating a river of clear water passing through this valley; such log houses as would let the fresh air of the atmosphere pass freely into them towards the large fire they kept up in cold weather, and their continual exercises in their boyhood with the Indian children in hunting, fishing, &c., and in all their sportive exercises of running, wrestling, &c., all had a tendency to promote health and strength and fit them for the labor they had to perform as they advanced in growth and after arriving to manhood, in respect to which however some parents were more indulgent than others, and those of the most persevering business character compelled their children to labor harder than those parents who were less persevering.
Cider had been a very plentiful and common drink in this neighborhood for many years. Cuddeback and Gumaer had been in the habit of drinking wine in their country, and after settling here, it appears, made early provision to have cider for their drink; for there were apple trees in their orchards and in Van Inwegen's orchard between two and three feet in diameter in the time of the Revolution; and when Gumaer (my grandfather) built his house, before the French war commenced, he had an opening left in the back wall of his cider cellar for a gutter to pass through it from his cider press back of the house into the cellar...
...the first orchards of Cuddeback and Gumaer and one of Swartwout, which became Van Inwegen's, were on the very best of their river flats and must have had a very quick growth ; the trees became large and were between two and three feet in diameter about the year 1780 when they appeared to have their full growth and some limbs began to die.
Physical Strength of First Generation
The first generation of the sons of the four families were reputed to have been strong men. It was said that the three eldest sons of Jacob Cuddeback, Benjamin, William and James, could carry 12 skipple wheat (9 bushels), by putting it into four three-skipple sacks, and, placing one under each arm and taking bold with each hand of the top of the others, could, on a barn floor, in this manner carry it from one end of the barn to the other; and that Anthony Swartwout's two sons, Samuel and James, could do the same, and that Harmanus Van Inwegen's son Gerardus, who was a smaller man, could carry it a few steps. Abraham Cuddeback, youngest son of his father, could not do it, nor Peter Gumuaer's son Peter, so that only two out of eight were unable to carry it...
William Cuddeback was a man of somewhat over six feet stature, coarse-boned, muscular and lean. He was strong and very nimble, and could outrun many young men after he was fifty years old. In the French war, after his hair had begun to turn gray, he outran a soldier who thought himself swift. He was very talkative and witty, and I think from what information I have had in relation to him, that he never had his equal in this town for humorous discourse and a display of wit properly and suitably applied. He was characterized as a wise man in his time. Argument was his hobby, and, as there was much of it in his time in relation to the Scriptures, he, although uneducated, became so versed therein that when among strangers he was often thought to be a well read man. He was a disbeliever in the superstitious notions which many people in his time had in relation to witchcraft, &c., and would often tell very laughable occurrences in respect thereto. He was somewhat slack in his business concerns and careless in paying attention too the same, but he always had help enough to manage the business of his farm.
(Gerardus Van Imwegen) killed more deer, bears and other wild animals and wild fowls than any other man of his time in this vicinity, whereby he not only obtained a very plentiful supply of those meats for his own family, but contributed liberally to those of Cuddeback and Gumaer, his neighbors, and enjoyed a very happy life.
Caudebec and Guimar, reduced from a state of affluence to that of indigence, differed widely to meet such a change and undertake the task of manual labor for a living which became necessary after they landed in this country, and was undertaken by them, but, as they were not able to perform as much as men habituated to it, they received only low wages. Caudebec, being dissatisfied, told Guimar that he would not work for such low wages; Guimar replied that they had to do something for a living, and, as they could not do much, they could not expect much, and that while they labored they had their living, if no more. At the instigation of Caudebec, they went from the State in which they first landed into the State of New York, and he, having been habituated to a trading business, became introduced into the family of Benjamin Provost, who also were in such business, and was married to one of his daughters. Guimar, in the meantime, undertook the business of cleaning flax by the pound, for which lie received wages according to what he did, and also became married to a daughter (as has been supposed) of a Deyo.
After these two individuals became settled in our present town, the same difference continued to exist in relation to their business transactions. Guimar, with the help of his daughters, two slaves he bought or had of his father-in-law, and one son, (his youngest child), became the greatest farmer in this town. He was very persevering in his business transactions, and severe to compel his slaves, also his daughters and son, to do all the labor they could perform...
Caudebec was the reverse of Guimar in respect to his business transactions, and more tender towards his children. He had much or a speculative disposition, and aimed at getting a living by easier means than that of steady manual labor, and this probably was the view of the seven first settlers and cause of their emigration to get possession of land where wild animals, fowls and fishes abounded, which, together with the cultivation of small portions of such land, would furnish means for an easy life and a better living, in respect of eatables, than what we can now enjoy.
After those individuals became located in our present town, it was necessary for them to procure a title for the land they wanted to occupy, and it appears that they selected Caudebec, as the most proper person, to send to the Governor and procure a patent for as many acres of land as would cover what they wanted to occupy.
After one of the Swartwouts, Caudebec and Guimar became owners of the patent right, they had to contend for the possession of a great part of the land they claimed and had in their possession, and it was necessary for them to devise means to counteract those who wanted to dispossess them. Caudebec, who was of a contemplative mind, must have been well calculated to assist in forming plans for that purpose, and I have understood that he, and certain individuals of his own family, officiated in some of those which were very important.
After his daughters became married, he devised means for their livelihood, by inducing the husbands of three of them, Abraham Louw, Evert Hornbeck and Harmanus Van Gordon, to locate on the east side of the Delaware river, in the State of New Jersey, opposite Shipikunk Island; and also his son James and two of his brothers-in-law to do the same, and each of them take possession of as much land on the island as was necessary for a livelihood for his respective family. This island was a body of very good river land, and the first possessor of any part of it had a right to hold what he had in possession without paying for it. It was termed King's land, and to remain unsold by his Majesty or Government. Other islands in that river were in the same situation, and the husband of another of his daughters, Westfall, located himself on the same side of the river, opposite Minisink Island, and took possession of a part of that island.
From all of which we must infer that he was a man well calculated to overcome difficulties, and had a penetrating mind. He was characterized as a sensible man. He had been educated, but to what extent is not known. He had told his family that he had been a great reader before he left his country, and that he regretted that his children did not have the opportunity to become educated. He instructed them in moral and religious duties, and was very tenacious of their characters. At a certain time two of his daughters told him that certain persons had made a scandalous report respecting them. He asked if it was true what they had said. They replied no, it was all lies.
"Well," said he, " maintain good characters and let them talk; they will get ashamed of their lies."
His character, in relation to what has been mentioned respecting his mental ability, has been inherited from generation to generation by some of his descendants (who remained in this town) to the present time. The bodily capacities of his sons, in respect of size, strength and agility, I consider to have been inherited from his wife, which, although much reduced from that of those ancients, is still superior in some of the descendants of the present time to that of the generality of men. Some of those ancients, in our neighborhood, were a very talkative people and uncommonly fond of conversation, in which they embraced a great variety of topics in relation to what had transpired in this valley for a distance of sixty or seventy miles, and included a great many remarks in relation, to the conduct of the people of.. those times and much argumentation on different subjects. I have sat many a long winter evening, and many an hour in the daytime, to hear the conversations and arguments of a few of the individuals of the second generation. These propensities, which were inherent in this family, have become much changed in their descendants of the present time. Many of these communications, remarks and arguments were entertaining and instructive, and had a tendency to induce good morality, of, which they possessed more in principle than in language. I will here introduce one good remark, which one of them made in the presence of myself and a few others, which was that, "The first of anything from which trouble accrued was the, cause of all the evil consequences which originated from the same."
In bodily size, strength and agility, there was a great similarity between the Swartwouts and Cuddebacks, but those I have known differed in visage...The ancient Swartwouts, Cuddebacks and Gumaers had black, curly hair and generally blue eyes and fair skin. The first Van Inwegen had red hair, his son Gerardus had black, curly hair and his children had black hair.
Source: Gumaer, Peter E. (1771-1869), A History of Deerpark in Orange County, N.Y., Port Jervis, NY: Minisink Valley Historical Society, written 1858-1862, published 1890.
 No marriage record has been found. A 31 Oct 1739 baptismal record for Maria and Willem's son, Petrus, is found in the Machackkemeck church records. The witnesses at the 12 Jan 1746 baptism of Lena, the daughter of Evert Hoornbeeck and Lena Cuddebeck (at Machackemeck) were "William Cole, Maritje Cuddebeck, his wife".
 No marriage record has been found. Baptism records have been found for Lena and Evert's children: Jacobus-1744 and Hendricus-1746. The witnesses at the 22 Dec 1745 baptism of Joel, the son of Jacobus Decker and Neeltje Ditsoort (at Machackemeck) were "Jacobus Koddebeck, Neeltje Decker, his wife". On 19 Oct 1749 in Machackemeck, "Neeltje Decker, widow of Jacobus Kuddebeck" married Joseph Wallon of New England.
 No marriage record has been found. Baptism records have been found for Lena and Evert's children: Benjamin-1739, Lena-1746, and Evert-1751. The witnesses at the 21 Jun 1747 baptism of Benjamin, the son of Willem Cuddebeck and Jacomyntje Etten (at Machackemeck) were "Evert Hoorenbeck and wife, Lena Cuddebeck".
 Note from Gumaer: Tyse and Jamison, it appears from other sources of information, did not become permanent settlers here. Jamison was from Scotland, and, from 1697 to 1714, served either as Vestryman or Warden in Trinity Church, New York, where he was Recorder of the city in 1712, and Attorney-General of the Province of New York in 1720. Tyse (Tyson) lived at Kingston.
 Note from Gumaer: About three-fourths of a mile south of the old stone house, which stands rear A. E. Godeffroy's dwelling, all of which was formerly owned by Peter E. Gumaer and family. Fort Gumaer was located on the south end of this knoll, on which spot now stands the frame dwelling owned by A. J. Gumaer, of Guymard, and occupied by a tenant.
 Note from Gumaer: Since then it has been ascertained that there was an earlier settlement in the county near New Windsor, at what is known as Plum Point...
 Note from Gumaer: This woman lived to a great age. It was said of her that in early life she became very fleshy and was taken with a severe sickness, which reduced her very low and she became lean, and having found the inconvenience of being fat and fleshy and fearing to be come so again, she thereafter stunted herself in eating less than her appetite craved, and lived to the age of about 100 years. She had the reputation of a fine woman, possessed of excellent qualities of mind.
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